Criteri generali di sicurezza antincendio e la gestione dell’emergenza nei luoghi di lavoro: la posizione CNI

Marco Di Felice – Delegato CNI in seno al CCTS |

Attività del CNI in CCTS: aggiornamento del DM 10/03/1998

Nella seduta del Comitato Centrale Tecnico Scientifico (CCTS) del 10 luglio 2018 è stata presentata la bozza di aggiornamento del cosiddetto nuovo DM 10/03/1998 (Criteri generali di sicurezza antincendio e per la gestione dell’emergenza nei luoghi di lavoro ai sensi dell’art. 43, comma 3, del D.lgs. 81/2008).

Si ricorda che il DM 10/03/1998 ha rappresentato negli ultimi vent’anni il principale e fondamentale riferimento normativo per la valutazione del rischio incendio nei luoghi di lavoro; lo stesso decreto, per quanto non costituisca un vera a propria regola tecnica, è stato l’unico riferimento ufficiale a cui attingere i criteri generali di prevenzione incendi utilizzati per la progettazione delle cosiddette “attività soggette e non normate”.

Infatti, fino alla pubblicazione del Codice di prevenzione incendi (DM 03/08/2015), la maggior parte delle attività produttive e di deposito/logistica non era supportata da una specifica regola tecnica di prevenzione incendi.

L’aggiornamento del DM 10/03/1998: la proposta dei Vigili del Fuoco non soddisfa

L’aggiornamento del DM 10/03/1998 deve ora colmare i margini residuali di vacatio normativa per la valutazione del rischio incendio e la progettazione delle piccole attività (non soggette al controllo dei VVF e non normate) e delle attività in ambito energetico e petrolifero, che non rientrano nel campo di applicazione del Codice di prevenzione incendi.

La bozza del nuovo DM 10/03/1998 proposta dal Corpo nazionale dei VVF non ha tuttavia soddisfatto le aspettative del CNI e delle altre professioni dell’area tecnica, in quanto la prima versione del testo costituiva una semplice rivisitazione del decreto originale, con un’impostazione tradizionale di stampo prescrittivo, priva di un’effettiva armonizzazione ai moderni criteri prestazionali di prevenzione incendi che ispirano il Codice.

Il CNI chiedeva pertanto al CNVVF (prot. 6204/2018 del 18/09/2018) una revisione radicale del testo proposto, che non possiede i necessari contenuti di aggiornamento e di allineamento al Codice di prevenzione incendi.

Si confermava inoltre la richiesta, più volte rinnovata, di una gestione più aperta e partecipata dei lavori di formulazione delle regole tecniche di prevenzione incendi, consentendo la condivisione preliminare dei principi generali dei decreti: il gruppo di lavoro che ha redatto questa bozza è infatti costituito esclusivamente da funzionari dei VVF.

I principi a cui si dovrebbero ispirare tutti i lavori del CCTS

Nel corso di un incontro tra i VVF ed i rappresentanti delle professioni tecniche, svoltosi a margine della seduta ufficiale del CCTS del 09/10/2018, il CNI ha quindi ribadito i principi a cui si dovrebbero ispirare tutti i lavori del CCTS: maggiore coinvolgimento delle categorie professionali nei gruppi di lavoro deputati alla redazione delle regole tecniche di prevenzione incendi, totale armonizzazione con il Codice di prevenzione incendi di ogni futura regola tecnica, maggior tempo a disposizione per la formulazione delle osservazioni.

In tale circostanza i VVF non concedevano la riapertura del gruppo di lavoro, ma si riservavano di accogliere ulteriori contributi dalle professioni tecniche, nell’ottica di revisione sostanziale della bozza, con modifica dei principi generali ed uno snellimento complessivo dei contenuti del decreto.

A lavori in corso, perviene dal CNVVF una nuova revisione unilaterale del decreto, con evidenti tagli al testo (si passa da 59 a 42 pagine), ma conservazione dell’impostazione prescrittiva ancora non rispondente alle aspettative del CNI.

I VVF annunciano inoltre la tanto richiesta modifica del campo di applicazione del Codice con l’eliminazione del cosiddetto “doppio binario”, che dovrebbe però arrivare prima dell’approvazione del nuovo DM 10/03/1998!

A questo punto non sono chiari gli sviluppi ed i tempi, ma il cambio di cavallo in corsa non offre le migliori condizioni per una condivisione collegiale dei contenuti e le categorie professionali si interrogano ancora sul senso di queste ataviche resistenze.

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