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Prevenzione incendi, cambia tutto: le novità del testo approvato dai Vigili del Fuoco

Matteo Peppucci | ingenio-web.it

Decreto norme antincendio: la bozza, ormai delineata dai Vigili del Fuoco e approvata nella seduta del 28 novembre 2018, stabilisce i criteri da seguire sia per valutare il rischio incendio all’interno dei luoghi di lavoro che per stabilire le conseguenti misure da adottare per ridurre la probabilità di innesco e per contenere le conseguenze in caso di incendio

Le nuove norme per la prevenzione antincendio sono realtà: si aspetta solo il testo definitivo del decreto interministeriale (che verrà pubblicato in Gazzetta Ufficiale) ma, come anticipato dal quotidiano Edilizia & Territorio, è stato ufficialmente approvato nella seduta del 28 novembre del Comitato centrale tecnico scientifico per la prevenzione incendi (Ccts) del Corpo nazionale dei vigili del fuoco, l’attesa bozza di decreto con la quale vengono aggiornati i criteri per la valutazione del rischio antincendio e la gestione delle emergenze nei luoghi di lavoro.

Di fatto, il nuovo decreto sostituirà lo storico DM 10.3.1998: la bozza stabilisce sia i criteri da seguire sia per valutare il rischio incendio all’interno dei luoghi di lavoro che quelli per stabilire le conseguenti misure da adottare per ridurre la probabilità di innesco e per contenere le conseguenze in caso di incendio.

Le modifiche alla bozza circolata in estate

Come già anticipato e trattato su Ingenio, la bozza (provvisoria) era già circolata prima dell’estate e avevamo già approfondito i contenuti del nuovo decreto, che teoricamente si divide in due: prevenzione antincendio nei luoghi di lavoro e nelle gallerie.

Nel testo sono ricomprese anche le misure organizzative e gestionali da attuare, che comprendono l’eventuale stesura del piano di emergenza e la designazione e la formazione degli addetti al servizio antincendio. Rispetto alla versione della bozza di decreto presentata nella seduta del 10 luglio scorso, in sede di Ccts, e resa disponibile appunto su Ingenio, la struttura del testo è stata molto semplificata, passando da 60 a 42 pagine. In particolare, vengono accorpati in un unico capitolo i criteri di prevenzione incendi e le misure di protezione per le attività non normate (prive di regola tecnica), soggette o non soggette al controllo da parte dei Vigili del Fuoco. Importante: le cosiddette “attività soggette” sono quelle individuate dal Dpr 151 del 2011 (allegato I).

Tra i cambiamenti più importanti, vengono definiti meglio alcuni concetti chiave, come il rapporto tra la nuova norma e le attività dotate di regola tecnica. In pratica, escludendo le sole attività con “spiccate finalità impiantistiche”, se un’attività ha la sua regola tecnica di prevenzione incendi va seguita quella, salvo poi riferirsi al nuovo decreto per ciò che riguarda le misure gestionali. Tale principio va a incidere pesantemente sul campo di applicazione del nuovo decreto, considerando che nel novero della attività normate, oltre a quelle dotate di regola tecnica prescrittiva, vanno aggiunte le attività che rientrano nel campo di applicazione del Codice, comprese le 34 “ex non normate”.

Adesso cosa succederà? La bozza deve passare al vaglio del Ministero del Lavoro che dovrebbe sovrintendere al coordinamento col Decreto Sicurezza sul Lavoro (d.lgs. 81/2008).

Sicurezza antincendio nei luoghi di lavoro: le novità principali

  1. la nuova norma si applicherà a tutti i luoghi di lavoro, inclusi quelli che rientrano tra le attività soggette ai controlli di prevenzione incendi (art.46, comma 3 d.lgs. 81/2008). I luoghi di lavoro sono intesi come luoghi interni alle aziende, alle unità produttive e alle relative pertinenze, accessibili ai lavoratori (art. 62 del d.lgs 81/2008);
  2. sono presenti specifiche disposizioni per i diversi luoghi di lavoro, che sono classificati in quattro gruppi (P1, P2, P3, P4) sia sulla base dell’assoggettabilità ai controlli di prevenzione incendi (attività soggette – non soggette) e sia della presenza di regole tecniche cogenti;
  3. viene confermato il sistema attuale di formazione degli addetti alla lotta antincendio e alla gestione dell’emergenza, introducendo però la periodicità dell’aggiornamento (quinquennale) e i programmi per l’aggiornamento;
  4. vengono introdotti i requisiti dei soggetti formatori dei docenti dei corsi di formazione ed aggiornamento degli addetti antincendio, prevedendo specifici requisiti culturali e formativi, e facendo salva la qualificazione di coloro che già hanno operato come formatori in materia;
  5. sono previste misure per la progettazione delle vie di esodo, per l’estinzione degli incendi e per l’individuazione dei sistemi di segnalazione e di allarme, da applicare anche alle attività soggette a controllo da parte dei Vigili del Fuoco e non dotate di specifica norma antincendio;
  6. la redazione del piano di emergenza resta obbligatoria per tutte le attività soggette a controllo da parte dei Vigili del Fuoco e per i luoghi di lavoro con meno di 10 lavoratori. Indipendentemente dal numero dei lavoratori, il piano di emergenza diventa un obbligo nei luoghi di lavoro aperti al pubblico “caratterizzati dalla presenza contemporanea di più di 50 persone”. Per tali attività, purché non rientranti tra quelle elencate nel dpr 151/2011, viene previsto un piano di emergenza semplificato nei contenuti;
  7. formazione: vengono definiti i requisiti e i titoli che devono possedere i docenti dei corsi di formazione e di aggiornamento per addetti antincendio. Per i formatori nasce un’abilitazione ad hoc, che si raggiunge frequentando corsi tenuti dal Corpo nazionale dei Vigili del Fuoco e superando i relativi esami;
  8. ipotesi fondamentali: il rischio di incendio di un’attività non può essere ridotto a zero; e, in condizioni ordinarie, l’incendio di un’attività si avvia da un solo punto di innesco;
  9. normativa prestazionale: è possibile utilizzare metodologie prestazionali per definire la strategia di prevenzione incendi e per progettare le vie di emergenza nel caso le misure contenute nel decreto che andrà a sostituire il Dm 10 marzo 1998 non possano essere rispettate (per la definizione del numero e della larghezza delle uscite di piano e delle scale, il decreto conserva il metodo per moduli contenuto nel vecchio DM)

Sicurezza antincendio nelle gallerie stradali: le novità principali

  1. le regole si applicano alle gallerie inserite nella rete stradale transfrontaliera “Trans European Network-Transport” (rete TEN);
  2. vengono fornite raccomandazioni progettuali che, qualora realizzate, sono ritenute idonee, senza ulteriori valutazioni da parte della Commissione permanente per le gallerie, al raggiungimento degli obiettivi di sicurezza previsti dal d.lgs. 264/2006;
  3. vengono suggeriti gli aspetti principali da tenere presente in caso di valutazione del rischio incendio in galleria (uscite d’emergenza, ventilazione, capacità dei materiali ecc.).

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