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Prevenzione incendi nei condomini

Matteo Peppucci | ingenio-web.it

Norme antincendio nei condomini: in Gazzetta Ufficiale le nuove norme sugli edifici abitativi di oltre 12 metri di altezza. Due anni di tempo per adeguarsi

Dal 6 maggio 2019 infatti, negli edifici abitativi alti più di 12 metri, sarà obbligatorio pianificare la gestione dell’emergenza in caso di incendio.

Lo prevede il testo finale del decreto del Ministero dell’Interno del 25 gennaio 2019, pubblicato nella Gazzetta Ufficiale n.30 del 5 febbraio, che reca modifiche ed integrazioni all’allegato del decreto 246/1987 concernente norme di sicurezza antincendi per gli edifici di civile abitazione, che entrerà in vigore il 6 maggio 2019 (novantesimo giorno successivo alla data di pubblicazione in GU).

Norme antincendio nei condomini: le novità principali
L’art.1 del provvedimento evidenzia che l’allegato 1 al decreto modifica le norme tecniche contenute nell’allegato al decreto del Ministro dell’interno 16 maggio 1987, n. 246, sostituendo il punto «9. Deroghe» e introducendo, dopo il punto 9, il punto «9-bis. Gestione della sicurezza antincendio». Le si applicano agli edifici di civile abitazione di nuova realizzazione ed a quelli esistenti alla data di entrata in vigore del presente decreto secondo determinate modalità.

Le nuove norme si applicano agli edifici di nuova costruzione e a quelli esistenti, che saranno obbligati a pianificare le procedure di evacuazione, ossia le azioni e i comportamenti corretti da mettere in pratica in caso di incendio, che comprendono, ad esempio, la diffusione dell’allarme, la percorrenza in sicurezza dei percorsi di esodo, il raggiungimento di un luogo sicuro, la procedura per l’attivazione dei soccorsi. Bisognerà inoltre individuare una serie di misure gestionali affinché vengano mantenute intatte le condizioni di sicurezza delle parti comuni e sia garantita l’efficienza degli impianti e dei dispositivi antincendio, come le reti di idranti e gli estintori.

Più in dettaglio, vengono individuate 4 gruppi di misure, molto semplici per gli edifici più bassi (fino a 24 metri) e via via più gravose per quelli più alti, prevedendo, tra i diversi obblighi, l’installazione di un impianto di segnalazione manuale di allarme incendio con indicatori di tipo ottico ed acustico per edifici che superano i 54 metri.

NB – l’altezza da considerare non è la semplice altezza del fabbricato, ma si fa riferimento all’altezza antincendi secondo la definizione contenuta nel DM 30 novembre 1983.

Requisiti di sicurezza antincendio delle facciate negli edifici di civile abitazione
Per gli edifici di civile abitazione soggetti ai procedimenti di prevenzione incendi di cui al dpr 151/2011, i requisiti di sicurezza antincendio delle facciate sono valutati avendo come obiettivi quelli di:

  • limitare la probabilità di propagazione di un incendio originato all’interno dell’edificio, a causa di fiamme o fumi caldi che fuoriescono da vani, aperture, cavità verticali della facciata, interstizi eventualmente presenti tra la testa del solaio e la facciata o tra la testa di una parete di separazione antincendio e la facciata, con conseguente coinvolgimento di altri compartimenti sia che essi si sviluppino in senso orizzontale che verticale, all’interno della costruzione e inizialmente non interessati dall’incendio;
  • limitare la probabilità di incendio di una facciata e la successiva propagazione dello stesso a causa di un fuoco avente origine esterna (incendio in edificio adiacente oppure incendio a livello stradale o alla base dell’edificio);
  • evitare o limitare, in caso d’incendio, la caduta di parti di facciata (frammenti di vetri o di altre parti comunque disgregate o incendiate) che possono compromettere l’esodo in sicurezza degli occupanti l’edificio e l’intervento delle squadre di soccorso.

Ai fini del raggiungimento di tali obiettivi, nelle more della determinazione di metodi di valutazione sperimentale dei requisiti di sicurezza antincendio delle facciate negli edifici civili, la guida tecnica “Requisiti di sicurezza antincendio delle facciate negli edifici civili” allegata alla lettera circolare n. 5043 del 15 aprile 2013 della Direzione centrale per la prevenzione e sicurezza tecnica del Dipartimento dei vigili del fuoco del soccorso pubblico e della difesa civile, del Ministero dell’interno può costituire un utile riferimento progettuale.

Le disposizioni si applicano agli edifici di civile abitazione di nuova realizzazione e per quelli esistenti che siano oggetto di interventi successivi alla data di entrata in vigore del presente decreto comportanti la realizzazione o il rifacimento delle facciate per una superficie superiore al 50% della superficie complessiva delle facciate.

NON si applicano invece agli edifici di civile abitazione per i quali alla data di entrata in vigore del presente decreto siano stati pianificati, o siano in corso, lavori di realizzazione o di rifacimento delle facciate sulla base di un progetto approvato dal competente Comando dei vigili del fuoco ai sensi dell’art. 3 del dpr 151/2011, ovvero che, alla data di entrata in vigore del presente decreto, siano gia’ in possesso degli atti abilitativi rilasciati dalle competenti autorità.

Data di entrata in vigore e tempistiche per l’adeguamento
Gli edifici di civile abitazione esistenti alla data di entrata in vigore del presente decreto sono adeguati alle disposizioni dell’allegato 1 del decreto entro i seguenti termini:

  • due anni dalla data di entrata in vigore del decreto per le disposizioni riguardanti l’installazione, ove prevista, degli impianti di segnalazione manuale di allarme incendio e dei sistemi di allarme vocale per scopi di emergenza;
  • un anno dalla data di entrata in vigore del presente decreto per le restanti disposizioni.

Per gli edifici di civile abitazione esistenti alla data di entrata in vigore del decreto soggetti agli adempimenti di prevenzione incendi di cui al dpr 151/2011, viene comunicato al Comando dei vigili del fuoco l’avvenuto adempimento agli adeguamenti previsti al comma 1, all’atto della presentazione della attestazione di rinnovo periodico di conformità antincendio, di cui all’art. 5 del dpr 151/2011.

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